State Formation in the Global South

State formation

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* Inquiry into the phases and processes associated with the development of the modern state * Seeks to establish where, when, how and why the state has come into existence


* Gianfranco Poggi
* The process through which non-state social formations acquire and develop the “practices of rule” and general characteristics associated with the modern state

State: Defining characteristics

1. Population

* Resides within a fixed territory
* Lays claim to that territory
* Subject to the sovereign power that exercises jurisdiction over that territory * Consists of citizens who enjoy rights and obligations of citizenship

2. Territoriality

* Occupy a pearly defined geographical space
* Territorial jurisdiction
* System of States
* Impermanent –> Not permanent (Could change, be replaced by an other organization…)–> Theories are saying that Nowadays we’re living a period of State changing

3. Sovereignty (=Absolute power, The power resides in the State) –> No supranational authority * Domestic sovereignty

* Exercise of sovereign power within the State jurisdiction, boundaries – (e.g to tax to make policies to educate…)

* Interdependence sovereignty

* Right To determine who and what arrives and leaves the state – (e.g rules to go to the US after 9.11)

* Westphalian sovereignty

* Mutual respect for territorial sovereignty
* Recognition of the formal equality of sovereign states * Non-intervention

* International Legal Sovereignty

* International agreements
* International institutions
* Self-help and the use of force

* De jure and de facto sovereignty

* Juridical (De jure) statehood – recognition –> The state has to be recognized as so by existing states * Empirical (De facto) statehood – capacity –> Ability to exercise sovereignty

4. Control of the means of violence

* Right to exercise coercive force within the state or outside the state on behalf of international conflicts


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