User hallmark is a critical portion in the information security. Proper hallmark helps to supply proper entree control to the user. By and large the traditional hallmark methods are based on – what the user knows ( PIN, watchword etc. ) or what the user has ( smart card, passport etc. ) . But these traditional hallmark mechanisms are non capable to verify the presence of the user. Whereas, biometric hallmark mechanism could be place the presence of a user. This is an machine-controlled method where the individuality of a user is verified harmonizing to the user ‘s physical or behavioural features.
Now a twenty-four hours, the biometric engineering is used in many states, in many organisations [ 21 ] . Most of the states in European brotherhood and besides some other states like United province, Australia, Brazil, Canada etc. are choosing to utilize biometric engineering into their passport system. As biometric engineering becomes cheaper into its application and use, some fiscal organisations like Bankss are seeking biometric engineering into their ATM service to supply the unafraid dealing to their clients. In different states the authorities are utilizing the biometric engineering into their different organisations such as in-migration service, constabulary etc. In United State, Immigration and Naturalization Service ‘s ( INS ) Passenger Accelerated Service System ( INPASS ) allows frequent visitants to quickly go through through review points by using the manus geometry of the rider as the biometric. The European Union ‘s states maintain a cardinal biometric database and usage EURODAC ( European Union automated fingerprint designation system ) to record and compare the fingerprint of the refuge searcher and the illegal immigrant. Australia use biometric-based national boundary line control system to their asylum-seekers and detainees. Recently the in-migration section in Australia announces that this system will besides use to the pupils who want to make the survey in Australia, to forestall the security menace of their state.
The biometric engineering is quickly germinating in different sectors due to its features like easy to utilize, less expensive, accurate and faster. However, possible invasion into the single privateness rights, loss and possible abuse of informations and spiritual expostulations are major concern over the usage of biometries [ 14 ] . These factors greatly hinder the credence of the biometric engineering by the people when deployed in existent life applications. As the engineering is meant to be used by the people, their perceptual experience about it has to be understood for successful deployment.
This paper aim would be to understand following inquiries:
How people perceive the usage of biometric in authentication/identification system?
How people perceive the privateness issues of biometric in authentication/identification system?
The end of this paper is to understand the position of people about the usage of the biometries in authentication/identification system. People ‘s perceptual experience of the privateness issues on this engineering usage will besides be presented.
The information that we derive can be utile for engineering makers, service suppliers, and some determination and policy shapers in proper execution, design and deployment of biometric engineering.
During the research procedure, we shall travel through the literature reappraisal, read different diaries, web paperss etc. and get the proper background cognition on different countries in biometric engineering specially like –
The basic debut to biometries and the types of biometries modes that are used in authentication/identification system.
The usage and possible deployment of biometric engineering in some countries.
The factors that influence user credence of engineering from some of the Theoretical Technology Acceptance Models and for biometries.
The concern of privateness issues with the usage of biometric in hallmark / designation system.
The hunt for relevant beginnings would be carried out through KTH on-line digital library, journal article databases like ACM portal, Science Direct, Springer Link, etc and popular hunt engine Google.
Based on background collected from the survey of the gathered articles and surveies a little set of on-line questionnaire study would be formulated in a popular web site ( Surveymonkey.com ) harmonizing to the demand of our research inquiry. Online study is an effectual method to roll up the information from respondent as it is fast, cheap and easy to administer. Besides, the responses can be easy manipulated and formatted.
The questionnaire would be distributed via web application ( electronic mail ) to get the hang pupil at section of DSV sing them as possible users. The purpose of usage by users is valid index of existent use [ ] when the existent users of the engineering can non be reached [ ] .
Through the study we would roll up quantitative informations. A statistical probe will so be performed to make the analysis of the informations collected from the study and deductive attack is taken to pull a decision on public perceptual experience of biometric engineering and its privateness concerns.
Biometric is the scientific discipline and engineering used to mensurate and analyse the human biological information. In information security, this engineering uses two types [ 11 ] of biological features of worlds such as physiological ( fingerprints, eyes, DNA, face, handprints, voice etc. ) and behavioural ( signature, pace, key strokes etc. ) features.
Biometric engineering uses automated methods to unambiguously place worlds with the acknowledgment of one or more of their physiological or behavioural features. The biometric features are alone and non alterable or movable to others [ 20 ] . Due to the singularity of the biometric features of a individual, this engineering firmly distinguishes a individual from others with the aid of the biometric informations that are stored into the cardinal database of the system. Biometric is used in hallmark or designation procedure. The figure shown below is the item diagram of the biometric authentication/ designation procedure. There are two phase – 1 is enrollment stage where the biometric informations will hive away into the cardinal database for future usage for the hallmark or designation and other is verification stage where the individual will show his or her biometric information to verify his or herself. These biometric informations will be compared with the stored informations and supply the success or failure of the designation.
Recently the development and the usage of the biometric engineering have been increased. This engineering is used in different country of security such as international, concern and personal security.
Types of biometries
Two types of biometric features ( physiological and behavioural ) are used into the system. Some of import biometries are describe below-
Fingerprint is most common and oldest biometric used into the hallmark system [ 22 ] . Two ways [ 22 ] are used to capture the figure print – 1 is by scanning optically and other is by utilizing electrical charges. When a finger is scanned, it represents some curves, bifurcations, deltas which are wholly alone for a individual. The failings of this system are the fingerprint can be reproduced for illustration by Si [ 22 ] , sometime when utilizing optical device, a image of the fingerprint may gull the device.
To authenticate by the oculus features, two acknowledgments method [ 23 ] ( retinal and iris acknowledgment ) are used. In retinal acknowledgment, the individual ( is to be authenticated ) has to come in forepart of a device and expression to the device so the device will scan his retina and analyse the blood vas from the image of the retina. Every oculus has a blood vas characteristic which is alone over clip [ 22 ] . So it is really hard to distort the system. On the other manus in flag acknowledgment, a camera is used to scan the iris form of the oculus and so this form will be analyzed by device. As flag is stable in our whole life [ 22 ] so it is besides really hard to distort the system. Iris scan engineerings tend to go comparatively expensive in footings of cost and memory demands [ 25 ] . Retinal scan could uncover the intoxicant ingestion wont and diseases like diabetes rises privacy concern among users.
This method takes a long clip to analyse the Deoxyribonucleic acid. Normally this is non used frequently in the hallmark procedure. The analysis is done by pull outing Deoxyribonucleic acid from some sort of cell of a individual such as hair, tegument, tissues, etc. Every individual can be distinguished by their alone DNA. But it besides possible to gull the system easy because if person bargains for illustration a individuals ‘ hair and present it to the system so system will be falsified. The job with DNA method is besides that it is non to the full automated and fast.
This is one of the easiest ways [ 22 ] to authenticate a individual. The individual ( is to be authenticated ) has to come in forepart to a camera and the camera will take a image of that individual so a device will change over the image to the digital representation based on some define characteristic of the face. This representation now will compare with the stored form. If lucifer so hallmark success otherwise failure. An uneffective system can be tricked by showing exposure or similar faces. Besides people tend to alter their visual aspect and manner over clip from the recorded facial information.
This is based on the frequence analysis of the voice informations [ 23 ] . A individual ( to be authenticated ) speaks in a mike and his voice will be recorded and so analyse this voice. This is non based on what a individual speaks but based on how the individual speaks. This system can be fooled utilizing the prerecording voice and besides unable to integrate the individual who can non talk.
This biometric engineering uses the dynamic analysis of a signature to authenticate a individual [ 24 ] . The individual ( is to be authenticated ) has to supply his /her signature with a pen on a particular device tactical screen. The hallmark system now will do its determination based on some parametric quantities like the form of signature, velocity of sign language, pen force per unit area when sign language, and pen-in-air motions [ 12 ] . The disadvantage of signature biometries includes low catholicity, low permanency, and direct onslaughts utilizing counterfeits [ 26 ] .
User credence and biometries
Any information system success depends on user credence and usage [ 1 ] without which the engineering may lose money and resources [ 2 ] . User credence can be defined as “ the incontrovertible willingness within a user group to use information engineering for the undertaking it is designed to back up ” [ 3 ] . The extremely subjective step in rating of user credence of engineering airss trouble in its appraisal [ 4 ] .
However there are many theoretical engineering credence theoretical accounts proposed- Technology Acceptance theoretical account ( TAM ) , the Theory of Reasoned Action, the Motivation Model, theoretical account uniting the TAM and the Theory of Planned Behavior, the Theory of Planned Behavior, the Model of Personal Computer Utilization, the Innovation Diffusion Theory, and Social Cognitive Theory [ 6 ] . All of these theoretical accounts predict the acceptableness of any engineering uses on the step of some concepts. TAM theoretical account developed by [ 7 ] utilizations Perceived Usefulness ( PU ) and Perceive Ease of Use ( PEoU ) as two concepts for foretelling the user credence of engineering usage. Users ‘ determination on following a peculiar engineering would be influenced if, the engineering would increase the occupation public presentation ( PU ) and the engineering itself would be easy to utilize ( PEoU ) [ 7 ] . TAM theoretical account is deficient to foretell specific engineering acceptance [ 6 ] and demands to add some other explanatory variables in the theoretical account [ 8 ] . The UTAUT theoretical account developed by [ 5 ] addresses the restrictions in TAM and suggests four cardinal constructs- public presentation anticipation, attempt anticipation, societal influence, and easing status, as direct determiners and four chairing variables-gender, age, experience and voluntariness of usage, for user credence and user behaviour. The theoretical account consolidates and unifies the indispensable elements of all above theoretical credence theoretical accounts.
The credence of biometric engineering in a peculiar context is influenced by two of import contextual factors-perceived benefits and perceived privateness hazards [ 9 ] . Hazard arises as the users are incognizant how their biometric information is used. The users have concern on the possible abuse and larceny of their biometric informations. In a research conducted by [ 17 ] the opportunities of accepting biometric engineering is increased if the users are given information on type and location of information stored, mechanism used to protect the informations and who could entree those informations. The same survey besides suggests that the system range should be wide to integrate every user group while being low-cost at the same clip. Other survey [ 10 ] points out acceptance of biometric system can be significantly determined by facets of user, undertaking and device. Further, attitude of users toward biometric device and its utility can be influenced by gender, cognition and cultural background.
Privacy and Biometricss
The confirmation process in biometric authentication/ designation system depends on the some mention biometric templet shops in the cardinal database waiter. Hence the singularity of biometric features for a human being, sometimes the people feel uncomfortable to supply their biometric information to hive away into the database. A privateness job may originate. [ ]
The significance, value and range of construct of privateness have non been exactly agreed upon [ 27 ] . Privacy can be ‘desire by each of us for physical infinite where we can be free of break, invasion, embarrassment and or answerability and an effort to command the clip and mode of revelations of personal information about ourselves ‘ [ 16 ] . This definition insights two facets of privateness: physical and informational privateness. It is a cardinal right of a human being which is sing as a most of import human right in the modern age. However the biometric engineering provides an accurate and rapid hallmark / designation of human but in sing the privateness issue, it has both positive and negative impact on an person. Sometimes the usage of biometric engineering may besides endanger an single privateness [ 13 ] . The privateness, sing the usage of biometric engineering can be categorized into two parts – personal privateness and informational privateness.
Personal privateness: Personal privateness is related to the personal individuality and the physical unity of our organic structure. Stigmatization, existent injury and hygiene are the concerns among the people about biometric engineering [ 14 ] . Peoples associate fingerprint with condemnable and forensic Acts of the Apostless. There is concern of possible injury that can be cause by the system such as to the eyes when utilizing retina scan engineering. Peoples are loath to common device that requires a physical contact as it may bring down contagious diseases. These can take people unwilling to take part and therefore makes the engineering unsympathetic.
Informational privateness: Informational privateness is related to the proper usage and the distribution of the 1 ‘s personal biometric information. The major concern of informational privateness associated with biometries engineering is “ function weirdo ” . This can be unauthorised aggregation, usage, keeping, and revelation of biometric informations [ 15 ] . Fear among the people that their biometric information can be used to track their motion and behaviour could take to “ Big Brother ” scenario. Persons may hold no control over their informations stored in cardinal database. The intuition of possible loss of privateness by the possible abuse and larceny of this information are outstanding in this scenario.
Presently there is non one international biometric criterion to modulate the privateness in biometric deployment [ 15 ] . However, several states and organisation has taken stairss to develop and implement biometric informations privateness rules and criterions. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development ( OECD ) in 1980 issued eight rules of privateness to steer its member states on the Protection of Privacy and Transborder Flow of Personal informations [ 18 ] . European Union has adopted these guidelines and passed “ Data Protection Directive ” to turn to the privateness issues of single EU citizens. In this regard, the EU member states have set their national jurisprudence and policy to follow with minimum criterion of the directive. Other organisation like Biometric Institute in Australia besides has issued privateness codification to its members. The privateness codification would supply ethical patterns, openness and transparence within engineering usage by protecting the privateness of its terminal users and derive credence of engineering [ 19 ] .
Survey Results and Analysis
The study questionnaire were formulated dwelling 10 inquiries taking in consideration the clip and range of the research activity. The first two inquiries were set to roll up the properties of the respondents, specifically their state of beginning and gender. Respondent ‘s cognition about the biometries was asked on the 3rd inquiry in three point graduated table: strongly familiar, just and non familiar. Following three inquiries were aimed to roll up the sentiment of the respondents on biometric engineering modes, application countries and its deduction to security. Privacy concern with different modes of biometries, sectors using the engineering and the usage of engineering itself were explored in following three inquiries. Last, the respondents were asked whether they were cognizant of any day of the month protection or privateness acts/laws in their state.
More than 300 study questionnaire were distributed through electronic mails. However, comparatively low, merely 68, figure of responses was collected. After the responses were analyzed, it was seen that the respondents came from different parts. About 66 % were from Asia, bulk of which came from Bangladesh, Pakistan and Nepal. Respondents form Sweden, Greece and some other European states covered somewhat less than 30 % . Majority of responses came from male, about three-fourths, whereas somewhat more than 26 % were female. More than 50 per centum of respondents said that they have just apprehension of biometries. The acquaintance with biometries was found to be similar between Asiatic and European respondents. From figure 1 we can see that greater portion of the respondents from both Asia and Europe has fair or strong acquaintance with biometries. Respondents with no acquaintance about biometries besides were found to be similar between Asiatic and European, approximately 18 % and 25 % severally. The high acquaintance with biometries can be due to the fact that the surveyed people were the pupils analyzing information engineering where it may hold been the topic of their class activities.
Figure: Acquaintance with Biometricss
Most of our surveyed people believed that the authentication/identification mechanism utilizing biometric engineering would supply better security than other traditional systems with PIN, watchword, etc. About 75 % of the respondents either agree or strongly agree that it is unafraid to utilize biometries alternatively of PIN or watchword while less than 11 % disagree in this respect. The remainder of the respondents do non hold a peculiar sentiment. From figure 2 we can see that the respondents who have fair or strong acquaintance with biometries believe that the biometric engineering is more unafraid than other traditional engineerings. Besides it can noted that about 60 % of respondents agreed the system would be unafraid with biometries even though they are non familiar with the engineering.
Figure: Biometric engineering Secure than traditional system
Most preferred applications of biometries harmonizing to the study are found to be in airport showings and banking minutess. More than 60 % of the respondents choose these two sectors for deploying of biometric engineering. Deployment of biometries in wellness and authorities employees ‘ countries are besides desirable to about 50 per centum of respondents. The less popular country for biometric use is found to be in public service employment ( with merely 18 % of respondents ) while some respondents suggested the usage in private place environment. Among the different modes of biometries, study show that fingerprint is more preferred in authentication/identification system with about 70 % of respondents opt for it. Iris and face acknowledgment besides got high support, 55 % and 41 % of respondents severally. Less than one-fourth of respondents desired for voice and signature acknowledgment.
Mention figure 3 and 4 in the text
Figure: Preferable application country of biometric engineering
Figure: Preferable biometric modes
Privacy concern with the usage of biometric engineering is found to be among about half of the respondents. Merely 12 % of the surveyed people are non concerned at all. The remainder of the respondents are non certain whether they are to be concerned about their privateness when utilizing the biometric engineering. Harmonizing to study it is seen that about one-fourth of the female respondents are diffident with the concern of privateness whereas about half of the male respondents say they are concerned. Very few respondents do non concern of privateness with the usage of biometries even though they are non familiar with the engineering. About half of those respondents say that they have privacy issues with biometries. The two- tierce of the respondents who is familiar with biometries says that they are concern of privateness with the engineering. It is besides seen from figure below that important sum of people are still non certain whether biometric engineering have issue on the privateness.
Mention figure 5 and 6 in the text
Figure: Privacy concern with biometric engineering
Figure: Privacy concern with biometric engineering against acquaintance of biometries
From the study it is seen that most respondents trust Bankss to maintain their biometric informations safe and will non be misused. About half of the respondents believed that the Bankss would non utilize their biometric information for unintended intent. Government and wellness are other sure sectors by the people. Peoples do non swear retail shops and private organisations for their biometric informations. Almost half of the respondents say they do non swear retail shops. Less than 20 % of the respondents show the trust for private organisation with their biometric informations and about 45 % of them are still diffident.
Mention figure 7 in the text
Figure: Sector trusted for biometric informations
Most people consider that different biometric modes are intrusive to their privateness. Facial acknowledgment is considered intrusive by more than 40 % of respondents. Likewise, other modes of biometries like fingerprint, flag, voice and signature are besides considered to be intrusive like facial acknowledgment. Upon farther analysis of the study responses it is seen that the respondents who do non concern about privateness with biometries consider fingerprint and flag are non intrusive modes. Around half of the respondents who are concern about privateness found iris, fingerprint, face acknowledgment and voice are intrusive. Keystroke and signature are non considered intrusive by the respondents even though they have privateness concern with biometric engineering.
Mention figure 8 and 9 in the text
Figure: Biometric modes considered to be intrusive
Figure: Privacy concern against intrusive biometric modes
From figure below it is seen that considerable sum of respondents are non cognizant of Data Protection or Privacy Acts/Laws in their state. One tierce of the respondents from Asia are non certain that their state has such Acts of the Apostless or Torahs whereas the same can be observed with European respondents. Merely approximately 35 % of respondents from both Asia and Europe are cognizant that their state has Data Protection or Privacy Acts/Laws.
Mention figure 10 in the text
Figure: Awareness of Data Protection of Privacy Acts/Laws