Human population has been affected legion times by the deathly disease onslaughts, as was the instance of the Black Plaque, impacting a major portion of the population in the fourteenth century and a recent instance of the SARS ( terrible ague respiratory syndrome ) virus. The endurance of these affected populations is chiefly dependent upon the fashioning of effectual remedy for these new diseases.
But gratefully, because of the promotions in the engineering, these types of diseases if had occurred in the recent times, would hold been dealt with more efficaciously with minimal deceases. Technological promotions such as the molecular diagnostic techniques have equipped world with the accomplishment of analyzing and bring arounding these infective diseases much better. This has meant an increased confidence of world ‘s endurance as compared to the black endurance opportunities hundred old ages ago.
conjectural disease eruption are defined by symptoms such as:
Flu like symptoms seeable in patients.
These symptoms are coupled with anemia, lassitude and terrible bone hurting.
After 4-6 hebdomads:
Recovering of patients from these symptoms without any symptoms nowadays.
The other half of the population is signified by disease patterned advance and a high febrility staying relentless taking to weight loss.
After 6-12 months:
Deaths of patients occur owing to the depressed immune system as a consequence of complications of infections.
Rarely seeable in kids before pubescence and the in-between aged or the aged group.
The age group from 18-25 seen as the chief victims.
Majority of the cultural groups are affected except the Afro-Caribbean people.
Except the homosexual communities many bi-sexual and heterosexual communities are affected.
Possible disease mechanisms?
In the visible radiation of the happening symptoms in the accomplished, one can foster goad into the manners by which the disease manifests itself.
First the most critical point is that this disease is caused by the bacterial and viral infective agents. Harmonizing to the available literature, bulk of the patients recover from this disease before developing any terrible and life threatening symptoms. Many patients are able to retrieve their wellness with the absence of any kind of long permanent effects. This is a positive mark bespeaking that the immune system of the organic structure is able to react and antagonize certain parts of the virus or bacteriums and therefore was able to extinguish it wholly.
The other staying half of the patients, advancement into the critical phase of the disease, by aiming the primary constituent of the organic structure ‘s immune system, the T-cell. The disease therefore progresses into the extremely metastatic lymphoma of the T-cell beginning. Thus the defense mechanism mechanism of the organic structure is compromised.
Harmonizing to the epidemiological surveies, the disease does show an unusual distribution form. In fact they are merely happening in certain groups depending on age and sex. The disease is sexually transmitted as surveies show frequent happening of this disease among the heterosexual and bi-sexual people, while it is rarely found in the homosexual group.
So maintaining in head the above statement, the factors finding the occurring of the disease can be jotted down as:
The development of T-cell lymphoma is noticed in the affected patients after a clip period of 12 months. The T-cell was discovered by Thomas Hodgkin in 1832, which was recognised as a important constituent of the immune system. The T-cells were a peculiar group of the white blood cells that were known as the lymph cells. The T-cells underwent reclassifications as new signifiers and sizes of the cells were discovered. The lymphoma re3ferred to in the modern survey can hence be a “ Hodgkin ‘s ” or a “ Non-Hodgkin ‘s ” lymphoma. In which the non-Hodgkin ‘s lymphoma consisted of all the lymphoma that was non classified as a Hodgkin ‘s ( “ The leukaemia & A ; lymphoma Society ” May 2006 ) .
One or more mutants do occur in one or more regulative procedures in order for the patterned advance of the disease to such a high metastatic lymphoma in the patient affected. Break of cell rhythm checkpoints and the decomposition of the DNA unity cistrons are the procedures happening during such regulative procedures ( Jacks et al. , 2002.
The patients ab initio suffer from symptoms such as acute bone hurting, lassitude and anemia which so proceed further. To find the appropriate remedy would be possible by finding its location and the mutant mechanism taking topographic point during these regulative procedures. Therefore it would be the best option to originate the survey with. The initial symptoms indicate that the disease is in a manner developed via these symptoms or these symptoms may be the initiating factor behind the development of the life endangering T-cell lymphoma. The cardinal factor in understanding the disease is to understand the predating phases of the disease and hence to bring around it at this phase. Therefore it would be necessary for patients to be treated every bit shortly as possible with the development of the initial symptoms.
In the visible radiation of the above treatments, it is besides noted that the patients enduring from the disease for 6 or more months, will hold their T-cells being targeted. Therefore to invent an appropriate remedy, it would be better to look into and understand the mode in which these bacteriums and viruses may assail the immune system of the patient.
DNA diagnostically proving
In order to derive cognition of the disease it would be better to analyze the Deoxyribonucleic acid organizing this peculiar virus. The Deoxyribonucleic acid reflects each and every characteristic, such as oculus coloring material, personality, etc. Therefore the Deoxyribonucleic acid of the virus will state us about its attachment behavior, development and reproduction if any. The survey of the familial makeup will enable unlocking the interior features of the virus at the molecular degree.
The mutants of two peculiar familial types, the Oncogenes and the Tumor Suppressor Genes ( TSGs ) , lead to malignant neoplastic diseases in people. Therefore analysis of the peculiar bases of the patient ‘s Deoxyribonucleic acid by the use of DNA diagnostic system will enable a comparative survey which will turn out good for the survey.
The illustration of human villoma virus is a normally happening disease. It maps by absorbing its Deoxyribonucleic acid with the host ‘s DNA doing cervical malignant neoplastic disease. The comparative survey of the sample from an septic patient with that of a healthy person will show the consecutive differences happening between the two.
There are other DNA systems available such as the Southern blotting system and the nucleic acerb hybridization. The nucleic acid hybridization is the method in which the individual strand of the DNA is attached to a peculiar membrane. A separate DNA investigation is added which enables fond regard. The mark sequence is the first strand and the labeled strand is the 2nd sequence which is added. The fond regard of both the strands when occurs, will take to sensing with the aid of suited setup ( Glick et al. , 2003 ) .
Cell culturing technique has been carried out since the mid 1900 ‘s and is still being practiced till today. Many research labs are utilizing this method to transport out diagnostic processs by originating with cell civilization. The virus must nevertheless be placed in a civilization to assist in its growing so to enable the sufficient growing of infective agents. The cell civilization medium, for case, used for the intent of growing varies in composing harmonizing to the cell. The difference may be in footings of variable foods present. Hence the cell civilization medium is thought carefully harmonizing to the cell.
After the completion of the first degree, that is the choice of a growing medium, the cells are allowed to turn. After a certain degree of growing is achieved the following measure is initiated, which is the designation procedure. A scope of trials are applied to find the physiological belongingss doing up the cell. The result is harmonizing to the makeup of the virus. The belongingss may include the needed salt concentration, pH control, supply of gas, etc ( Warrell et al. , 2005 ) .
The T-cell civilization method is commercially used for research intents owing to its utility. In malice of this there are many disadvantages to the procedure, such as:
Absence of growing.
Slow paced growing.
Equipment and care cost ( Zareen et al. , 2009 ) .
But certain viruses like the Chlamydia ; the acknowledgment of the belongingss is non possible. Thus this is a disadvantage of the procedure.
Polymerase Chain Reaction ( PCR )
The polymerase concatenation reaction is often and widely used in assorted research labs. The development of PCR was an accomplishment in itself because of its simple technique which can be utilised in the diagnostic research lab. This technique can be handily modified to accommodate the research worker ‘s demands and is mark specific. The technique is hence a simplified and a consecutive forward attack towards analyzing alterations in the pathogen sequence.
The Deoxyribonucleic acid fragments in a aggregation of templet DNA is amplified, incorporating sequences non of involvement. But to set up its effectivity on a patient ‘s sample, it must be seen that the RNA is utilised by many viruses to retroflex and hence lead to infections in the host. This is solved by the transition of the RNA to a Deoxyribonucleic acid sequence. The enzyme contrary RNA polymerase is a critical enzyme as a Deoxyribonucleic acid transcript is made handily by the aid of this enzyme. Many other accurate and efficient enzymes are available, which have been manufactured by the companies and have originated from the original construction. But there truth is still non 100 % guaranteed ( Trent et al. , 2005 ) .
The PCR can be successful in entirety if the flanking countries are studied and a elaborate cognition about these parts is obtained. The cognition will enable the designing of both the backwards and the forward primers can be done specifically for the fond regard. Specific reagents are required to enable successful elaboration, which may be unfertile H2O, Mg, or other enzymes. The designation procedure of the pathogens can be achieved after the exponential elaboration is initiated with the choice of proper reagents and equal conditions ( Erlich et al. , 1991 ) .
Phenotypic and Genotypic-based trials
The diagnostic methods are classified as either phenotypic or genotypic.
Phenotypic trials: these trials have been widely used for many old ages because of its cost effectivity and handiness. In comparing, this technique has jobs like incommodiousness in visual image with batch of clip consumed. It can non be done by anyone but requires application by specialized scientists. Changing physiological features and belongingss may develop due to a longer clip period in the civilization. Therefore differences may be observed in these pathogens as compared to those of the early virus lifecycle ( Trent et al. , 2005 ) .
Genotypic trials: these trials have been farther developed with the promotions in molecular biological science. These techniques have been able to replace the above mentioned traditional methods. But the genotypic technique has proven to be expensive.
Another technique has now been developed since the last 20 old ages, which is the profiling of proteins and bacteriums. This has made the word picture of infective agents much easy ( Tang et al. , 1997 ) . .
The technique of microarrays has been created in aftermath of the technological promotions that have been taking topographic point at a rapid gait. This technique has been really good as it allows the analysis up to 1,000,000 oligonucleotides per cm2. . A Deoxyribonucleic acid molecule is attached or spotted onto the solid surface such as glass or Si in the microarray setup. The Deoxyribonucleic acid staining is executed through computing machine for truth on to the solid surface, which should non be porous at all ( Trent et al. , 2005 ) .
The affiliated DNA musca volitanss on the glass are complementary with regard to the DNA investigation, the sequence of which is attached to the solid surface. This Deoxyribonucleic acid is either complementary DNA ( complimentary Deoxyribonucleic acid ) or a aggregation of oligonucleotides.
Radioactive labels attached to the investigation, are used to place the complementary lucifer established between the templet Deoxyribonucleic acid and the investigation DNA. A fluorescence dye can besides be used for this intent. The technique is alone as it allows accurate and immediate consequences reading.
In the instance of freshly identified diseases, the microarray engineering can be efficaciously utilized as it can be used in the comparative analysis of the patient ‘s sample to that of the normal individual. As peculiar cistrons express certain consequences, these certain cistrons can be selected for imprintation on the microarray bit. The comparative analysis of the healthy and the infected cistrons will render consequences demoing differences in looks of the cistrons ( Trent et al. , 2005 ) .
Decisions can be derived with the aid of the cognition on over or under expressed cistrons explicating the procedures and the mechanism of the diseases.
This method is efficaciously utilized for the pathogen word picture as it proves efficient in footings of sensitiveness and specificity of the immunological processs. The pathogens nevertheless have to expose a alone belongings or a construction for this procedure to be effectual which will so take to the formation of antibody and antigen composite ( Glick et al. , 2003 ) . After the formation of the composite, a spectrophotometer can be used to see the fond regard to a peculiar substrate, therefore finding the pathogen ‘s presence.
Another technique which helps in the immunological belongingss is the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay ( known as ELISA ) . The technique is being normally used in research labs. The cognition of direct fond regard sites is primary as it utilizes an antibody which bonds with the antigen. The procedure is followed by rinsing to take any unbound antigen, to which so another primary antibody is so added. This secondary antibody will carry through two of import intents. Firstly it will adhere to a peculiar primary antibody and secondly it will besides adhere with an enzyme such as the alkaline phosphatise. The enzyme will assist the research workers in visually placing the presence of a reaction in instance of the binding of the secondary antibody to a secondary antibody. ( Zackrisson, G et al. , 1986 ) .
A particular antibody harmonizing to the reaction as a consequence of the pathogen needs to be produced for the technique to work decently. The debut of a trial topic like a coney or a mouse will hold a certain immune response, which will render the antigens specific to the antigen. Thus the antibodies can be collected through this method.
The remedy developed to be effectual must foremost turn to the virus and so the symptoms happening because of the disease. The remedy for the disease will so be achieved. A scope of techniques such as genomics, bioinformatics, molecular biological science and proteomics are available. ( Warrell et al. , 2005 ) . These techniques can be used to develop a remedy by maintaining in head the undermentioned factors:
Word picture of the host mark to invent ways in curtailing the infective agents ensuing in harmful diseases.
The nucleotide sequencing of the pathogen.
Stop the reproduction in instance of the pathogen being a bacteria. In instance of a virus, invent ways to curtail it from attaching to the host ‘s constituents.
Pathogen alterations with regard to the designation of primary sequences in the induction and the written text.
The disease development should be stopped by curtailing the disrupted regulative procedures.