MANAGING RECRUITMENT UNDERSTAND HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING IN AN ORGANISATION “If you fail to plan, you plan to fail”….. Winston Churchill The Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development” have defined human resource planning as… “a core process of human resource management that is shaped by the organisational strategy and ensures the right number of people with the right skills, in the right place at the right time to deliver short and long term organisational objectives …. ithout a workforce plan it is impossible to understand how viable it is to execute your chosen business strategy” (Reflections on Workforce Planning – 2010) It may be argued that HR planning is the base upon which all other HR activities sit as it involves forecasting what the future human resource needs are of an organisation and subsequently what needs to be done to meet those needs. In order for an organisation to meet both its short and long term goals it is essential to have the right staff in place. Human resource planning should encompass the following: Reduce staffing costs by anticipating both shortages and surpluses of staff and ensuring that adequate steps are taken to minimize these issues * It should contribute to the overall strategic business development plan * Development plans for employees which mutually benefit them and the organisation and succession plans for either internal promotions or to replace those who move onto other organisations * Evaluation of existing policies and procedures to ensure compliance with ever changing legislation and also to develop in line with future requirements At All Saviour’s Girls School HR planning is completed at senior level with the Governing Body.
A number of factors are taken into consideration in planning the future HR requirements in a school: * The school is growing over the next three years to take in an increase of 100 students – a key aim in the plan is to have the right teaching staff in place for the right subjects, with the right qualifications as soon as they are required * Development of staff is crucial to retain the best teaching/support staff at the school. The school has committed to CPD in its plan and in creating an environment where staff feel valued * Population trends are considered. The school is based in a local community and primary school pupil numbers are key in ascertaining the growth of the school to accommodate future numbers * Changes in technology and teaching strategies are key in the school HR plan. The curriculum is currently undergoing many changes under the current government and we must have the right staff in place to deliver these changes * Changes to legislation, for instance abolition of the default retirement age. an impact on planning as the workforce now live longer and are less likely to retire It could be considered that there are four steps required to effectively plan the human resources of an organisation and these are: * Gathering and analyzing data regarding requirements – SWOT analysis provides a good starting point in looking at environmental factors. For the school this would be birth rates in the local community, changes to education delivery, changes to legislation that may impact and skills of staff * Establishing objectives, policies and relevant procedures – this may be around how the school recruits, trains and retains staff either by internal promotion or externally.
Other areas may be working in partnership with other schools or using contract staff * Developing and then implementing action plans to deliver the vision – these plans should include numbers of staff, when they are needed, skills and training * Evaluation of the plan – results, staffing costs against budget forecasting etc. All employers have a legal responsibility to ensure that there is no unlawful discrimination in the recruitment process. Equality of opportunity is an integral part of recruitment and selection and therefore the recruitment policy at All Saviour’s Girls School has been designed to ensure that we comply fully with the legislation. The Equality Act of 2010 sets out the detailed requirements that we as an employer must follow and is set out in our standard Code of Practice for recruitment. It is against the law to discriminate against someone on the grounds of: * Disability Race/colour * Ethnic or national origin * Sex or sexuality * Marital status * Gender reassignment * Age * Religion or belief Discrimination can occur both indirectly or directly. Other legislation includes: * Asylum and Immigration Act 1996 * Equal Pay Act * Rehabilitation of Offenders Act * Human Rights Act 1998 in respect of the right to respect for family and private life and freedom of thought, conscience and religion * Data Protection * Working Time Directive * Employment Rights Act 1996 The Employment Rights Act has a significant impact on our recruitment and selection processes as it gives employees certain rights under law as follows: 1.
Employment Rights –statutory, contractual, express and implied terms in contracts. 2. Written Particulars – there is an obligation on the employer to provide employees with certain key terms such as salary and holiday. 3. Termination of Employment – the different methods by which employment may be terminated. This is a very important section as it covers the statutory minimum notice period which, if breached, can result in an action for wrongful dismissal. 4. Unfair Dismissal – the right to not be unfairly dismissed. 5. Statutory Disciplinary, Dismissal and Grievance Procedure – the minimum procedure which must be followed. 6. Redundancy – an explanation of what constitutes a genuine redundancy. 7.
Family Friendly and Worker Protection Provisions – key rights regarding the Working Time Regulations, Maternity and Paternity rights and Flexible Working. 8. Discrimination – the right to not be discriminated against We must ensure that in our recruitment procedures and policy that we comply with this legislation as failure to do so could result in an employee taking us to a tribunal which could have a financial impact in payment of compensation. The impact of these legal requirements on HR planning at All Saviour’s Girls School is great. The success of any organisation depends on its employees. Employment legislation is in effect the minimum standards of a workplace and plays a part in driving the creation of policies and procedures that support the organisation and safeguard the employees.
Policies are designed in consultation with staff and their union representatives to ensure the most effective outcome for both the school and its employees. As All Saviour’s Girls School is a local authority school we have many additional policies that are government directed for public sector organisations. When creating the HR plan we must ensure that we as a minimum – * Abide by the legislation set down * Create policies and procedures that support it * Ensure our staff are aware of their obligations * Ensure staff are trained to know the legislation, to be aware of changes and to implement them * To review policies and procedures on a regular basis To act on feedback from those who ‘live’ the policies/procedures At All Saviour’s Girls School we have a HR committee as part of the Governing Body who are responsible for ensuring that all of the above is contained within the HR section of the strategic development plan. Feedback from middle manager level is given in the form of monthly reports that assist them in analyzing what is working and what isn’t and also highlights areas of concern that may need to be taken into consideration. Examples include staff turnover, absence statistics and performance. A key part of HR planning is ensuring that as a school we do not become overstaffed and have to make staff redundant. Redundancy has legal implications under the terms of the Employment Rights Act 1996 in terms of procedure and entitlement to the affected employees.
Redundancy can also have a devastating impact on an organisation. The human element in terms of emotionally and financially can be immense along with the impact on those not directly affected in relation to morale and performance. We have recently restructured our Senior Leadership team and in compliance with legislation have been able to offer alternative employment in school to the people affected therefore preventing any redundancies. It is not something that was, nor should be undertaken lightly. The staff affected have been appointed into new roles and therefore support in terms of training and development has been key along with emotional support throughout the changes.
As more schools achieve academy status and can set their own salary scales it becomes more important as a state school to develop our policies and procedures that will allow us to compete more effectively for the best staff in the current and future job market particularly in teaching where some subjects are difficult to recruit for. In order to do this it is important to ensure that people want to come and work at All Saviour’s Girls School. As part of our HR plan we have designed our policies to ensure the following: * Flexible working is considered and in most cases authorized to encourage a good work life balance for all employees. This is not just for those who are eligible under the flexible working legislation. The school week has also been designed to finish at lunch time on Friday to support work life balance and offer religious observance. * The HR plan intends to deliver an on-site creche by 2015 to support working parents.
This will not only be a positive step in encouraging people with families to apply for vacant posts who may otherwise encounter difficulties with childcare. It will also provide alternative options for existing employees who require this service. * CPD is actively supported and encourage and the HR plan encompasses a healthy budget for training and development both internally and externally. All staff have access to this – both teaching and support staff. ( i. e no discrimination) * Employee wellbeing is high on the agenda – many employees work full time and have to juggle long hours with family life. We support that with policies for paid leave of absence for medical appointments, time to care for dependants, attending children’s school events etc.
This ensures that we support our employees who in turn will feel supported, be motivated and more likely to perform better. We also offer a valeting/ironing service to support better work life balance. Services take place during the working day so that employees have more free time at the weekends to spend with families and friends. * Employee reward schemes are in development to encourage retention of staff. These include additional allowances for extra responsibility; departmental and individual rewards for ‘going the extra mile’ and a staff nomination scheme to nominate colleagues who receive cash/voucher payments. * Our recruitment policy is both effective in terms of ensuring that we recruit he right people for the school who are both committed and with the right skills. This ensures that we do not incur costs from recruiting staff who may be discontented and leave therefore requiring further recruitment. Our policy is fair and ensures that the right person is recruited on merit. The average cost of recruiting one teacher is in the region of three to five thousand pounds for advertising, staffing costs for the recruitment process and pre-employment checks. * We have a very generous sickness absence policy that offers paid leave for sickness over a period of time. Attendance rates are closely monitored and the reasons for any absence.
Stress is dealt with by referral to OHU and any workplace issues that may be contributing to absence are dealt with under the school’s grievance policy. Having a grievance policy is a statutory requirement and it therefore must be dealt with under a set procedure with applicable deadlines for hearing the grievance and rights of appeal for the employee. * When staff do leave the school we have an exit evaluation procedure that ascertains why someone has left. This information is then reported back to the management team and the governors as part of the evaluation process. * We have a retention strategy which offers financial recompense if we need to retain staff with certain skills * We use contract staff for absent teachers or maternity leave replacements.
This ensures that colleagues are not pressured into taking on a colleagues workload and also that the learners have continuity of teaching when a member of staff is absent. Contract staff are appointed through local agencies. At All Saviour’s Girls School there is significant scope to improve how we plan in relation to HR. Methods of analysis and reporting systems are very basic. Whilst we implement our policies and procedures in line with legislation there is an element of inflexibility across the whole staff. Teachers and support staff have very different terms and conditions of employment and some policies could be seen to ‘look after’ one group better than the other.
Our HR plan does not demonstrate an element of how we can improve further – there are no actions or objectives in relation to growing a workforce that can move forward to deliver top quality education in the next ten years. Support staff do not have performance management yet they form a key part of the support mechanisms for the school. This could weaken our ability to recruit the right staff. I feel that we are more reactive than proactive and this is because HR planning does not play as important a part in the overall strategic development plan as it should. The link between teaching and learning and the workforce needs to be integrated further.
BE ABLE TO PLAN AND IMPLEMENT RECRUITMENT IN LINE WITH LEGAL AND ORGANISATIONAL REQUIREMENTS It is important to explain the some of the principal features and requirements of the recruitment process at All Saviour’s Girls School as we are subject to additional regulations and requirements due to the very nature of our being a school. Following the Bichard enquiry in 2007 new legislation/regulations were introduced in relation to the safeguarding of children and vulnerable adults and subsequently translated into a Code of Practice on Recruitment and Selection in addition to a Safer Recruitment policy. As Personnel Officer I am trained in Safer Recruitment along with the Head and representatives of the Governing Body. The school has a statement of intent written as follows: “All Saviour’s Girls School is committed to safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children, young persons and vulnerable adults and we expect all staff and volunteers to share that commitment.
Fair and thorough recruitment, selection and interview processes are in place throughout the school” The school is required to comply with the Criminal Records Bureau safer recruitment standards and ensure that all recruitment to posts that involve working with children or have access to information require the successful applicant to: * Complete a detailed application * Provide the required identification * Provide two written references * Consent to a CRB disclosure * Be aware that they have a responsibility to disclose convictions, cautions * Undergo an interview School must also keep records for twenty five years and maintain a Single Central Record for all staff which contains all the safeguarding checks. All jobs have a detailed job description and a person specification which details the responsibilities attached to the post and the criteria required to be able to do the job. In UK employment discrimination law, a Genuine
Occupational Qualification (or GOQ) exists when the nature of a particular job causes the sex or gender of an applicant to become a reasonable cause for choosing one applicant over another, also known as indirect discrimination. As a faith girls’ school we are required to only have female PE teachers and therefore this post in school has a GOQ. Ordinarily we use existing job descriptions when a vacancy arises however we have had two posts recently that were new to the school. As part of my role I write the job descriptions by souring comparable ones from other schools. We then benchmark the salary against existing or similar roles to ensure consistency. The person specification has essential criteria and desirable criteria which we score applications against in order to shortlist for interviews.
Scoring is made on the basis that an applicant either: * Fully meets the criteria * Partially meets the criteria * Does not meet the criteria The highest scoring applicants are then invited for interview. Interviews in school usually comprise of an assessment, presentation and formal panel interview with a minimum of three interviewers on the panel. Teaching posts require applicants to teach a lesson, admin posts usually require an ICT skills based assessment. This is not a legal requirement, more a Code of Practice in the school. More senior posts require a more detailed and lengthy interview and usually involve a presentation and written report. Interviews are conducted in a formal manner.
Questions are very carefully structured and designed to ensure that we do not discriminate against the protected characteristics as stated in the Equality Act. All disabled applicants are guaranteed an interview if they meet the essential criteria. Questions must be designed to ensure they do not contravene these regulations, however as a faith school there is one aspect of “positive discrimination” that we are able to act upon and this is recruiting teaching staff who are of the faith. It applies only to teaching staff and not support staff. Our interviews are designed to be competency based therefore we place great importance on candidates giving us examples and evidence to support their answers.
There is a heavy emphasis on safeguarding and ascertaining a person’s motives for wanting to work in an environment with children. All answers are recorded separately by each panel member. Consultation takes place after all the interviews and a majority decision must be reached for an appointment to be made. Two references are always obtained, preferably before interview but certainly prior to appointment. Candidates are always notified by telephone of the outcome of the interview and feedback is always given to those who have been unsuccessful. Interview paperwork is kept for a minimum of six months as we are legally required to be able to justify the decisions we have made and the evident to support those decisions.
Unsuccessful candidates/applicants can take the school to tribunal if they feel that they have been discriminated against as part of the recruitment process. As detailed earlier when an employee leaves we conduct exit interviews which are used for HR planning purposes. Under data protection rules we have to store employee personnel files for 25 years which are kept in a secure location. This procedure was introduced as part of safeguarding regulations. The following describes the recruitment process from the identification of a recent vacancy through to the appointment of the successful candidate including the rationale of why there was a requirement to recruit.
The school staffing structure for 2013 was revised in 2012 and the governors authorised the appointment of a Director of Pastoral Care who would be responsible for the pastoral team in school. The pastoral team had grown quite significantly in terms of staffing numbers in recent years from two to four members and it was deemed important for a “middle” manager to be in post to manage both the team and the department. A review of the spending plan in October identified some surplus in the school staffing budget and therefore it was decided that we should proceed with the appointment of a candidate for the vacant post. Pastoral care forms an important part of school life in dealing with the welfare of our students. It also encompasses child protection.
I sourced some pastoral job descriptions from a colleague in a neighbouring school along with some examples from the internet and created a job description to reflect the responsibilities that the post would have. The job description was checked by our legal representatives and then approved by the Principal. I then completed the following for the post: 1. Obtained full details of the contract i. e. : hours of work, salary, nature of term i. e. permanent or fixed, teaching or support staff, potential start date 2. Created the job advertisement ensuring it was applicable for the post and that the wording complied with legislation e. g. Equality Act (Appendix B) 3.
Ensured that the advert displayed the correct information to notify potential candidates that Criminal Record Bureau checks would be made in line with Safeguarding procedures 4. Specified a contact for queries and added a closing date/time for all applications 5. Notified the reception staff that the vacancy was being advertised so that they could prepare application packs 6. Identified the panel for shortlisting/interviewing and created the shortlisting documentation 7. Sent the adverts to our advertising forum – e-teach, loaded details onto the school website and placed a copy on the staff noticeboard. All vacancies are advertised both internally and externally. Once the closing date had passed I processed the applications for shortlisting.
The panel nominated for shortlisting must check the person specification criteria against the evidence provided by the applicant and score accordingly. Once this was done I checked all the shortlisting to ensure the scoring was accurate and fair. I also completed a thorough check of the work history, disclosures and education of the applicant. It is important that I ensure this process is thorough as it is important to avoid any potential discrimination during the recruitment process. Not only is it a legal requirement but it also ensures that I can identify and highlight any additional queries that may need to be investigated further at interview.
Applicants may be able to make an employment tribunal claim against the school if they felt that we had unlawfully discriminated against them by not selecting them for interview therefore the checking process is extremely thorough. I wrote letters to all applicants who weren’t shortlisted for interview to inform them that they had been unsuccessful in their applications. In the letters I encouraged them to ring for feedback as I feel that this is highly important in helping them to apply for other posts. A fundamental error that many applicants make is that they do not demonstrate in their application how they meet the criteria in the person specification. Following shortlisting I then arranged a suitable date for interview with the relevant interview panels.
At this point we discussed any tasks/lesson observations that were to be conducted as part of the interview process. I compiled interview letters for all three posts along with a schedule for the interview date. This contained relevant information that they would need to know about the interview process and content. As part of the regulations for Safeguarding in schools I requested that the interviewees bring proof of identity and proof of their right to work in the UK along to the interview for verification. I also requested that all interviewees contact the school should they require any adjustments to be made as part of the interview process.
I also requested that candidates for the teaching post must bring proof of their teaching qualifications. At this point I also sent off for references for all those attending interview. Prior to interview day I produced the interview questions for each role. When interviewing people for a job there are certain questions you should not ask, such as whether a candidate is married, is a partner in a same-sex civil partnership or plans to have children. Also, there are restrictions on questions that may be asked about disability or health. I have ensured that all are interview questions comply with legislation but that they are also designed to challenge interviewees.
I have also included a number of questions regarding safeguarding and a person’s motives/intentions for wishing to work in an environment with children. I have been trained as a Safer Recruitment Officer and always take part in interviews. My role is intended to support the other members of the panel in providing advice and guidance and to ensure that the interview process is fair and equitable. All members of the panel are required to make notes on the answers provided by the interviewees. We must always be able to justify our decision to recruit a particular person. This will help us provide evidence to an employment tribunal if we are faced with a claim of unlawful discrimination.
An appointment was made which was then subject to other checks including references which are a key part of any appointment that we make in school. All references obtained are carefully checked as an offer can be withdrawn if they are unsatisfactory. Other important checks include a medical assessment and obtaining an enhanced disclosure from the Criminal Records Bureau. Proof of right to work in the UK is also a primary check usually validated through passport or birth certificate. On receipt of all clearances I wrote the offer letter and contract for the new employee. Accuracy is extremely important as the documents contain information that is supported under employment legislation.
As part of the Department for Education requirements I must maintain a record for all employees known as the Single Central Record. This contains every employee’s recruitment details including CRB clearance. I update this record as staff leave and new employees are recruited. It has restricted access to myself and the Business Manager and is stored on the school server in a secure location. I added the new employee to the record to ensure that it reflected our current status. A recent audit from the local authority audit team consisted of checks of the SCR and personnel files. My work was found to be highly accurate and of a detailed and high standard. This was endorsed in the audit report produced for the school.
I always offer feedback to the unsuccessful candidates and either I or a colleague on the interview panel will speak with anyone who requests feedback as to why they were not offered the post. Following the interviews I requested feedback from the panel as I want to ensure that we can improve our process where possible. Some improvements that I have implemented since taking responsibility for recruitment are as follows: * Shortlisting forms for each role linked to the person specifications * Tasks and assessments for admin based roles to be used at interview * Updated interview questions to include ones related to safeguarding * Feedback to all those who request it