Greenpeace Influence On Policy Of The United

Greenpeace: Influence On Policy Of The United States Essay, Research Paper

The Influence of Green Groups on the Policy of the United States

Abstraction: This research examines the relationship between environmental groups

and the policies of the United States. The United States political system has

been historically anthropocen-tric, or human centered. Environmental groups

have been trying to alter this to a biocentric or ecocentric point of view,

which includes the rights of animate beings and the environment. These positions are

nature centered alternatively of human centered. This survey will reply the inquiry

of whether these groups have been effectual at changing United States policies.

This will be done through the survey of positions offered by both sides. Besides, a

study will be used to find whether congresswomans positions are consistent with

environmentalist positions. It will besides show whether policy alteration has taken

topographic point, and if these alterations have remained integral through the survey of yesteryear

congressional determinations.

Research Problem

1. Research Question

Have environmental groups & # 8217 ; schemes been successful at changing the policies

of the United States?

2. Rational for the Research

This research will assist environmental groups to place the effectivity of

their schemes. This is necessary for these groups to efficaciously change the

policies of the United States, which is one of the largest defilers in the

universe. If their schemes are uneffective so it will be necessary for them to

reevaluate their methods. Without the usage productive methods these groups will

non be able to protect the environment. Animals, workss and the full

ecosystem must hold the same protection as worlds have. An ecocentric point of view

establishes the right of the environment to hold legal standing. This gives

people the ability to support the right of an animate being to be with the same

rights as worlds. Without this protection, people will be merely as negatively

affected as the environment. The Earth must be thought of as a life being,

if one portion is hurt so the whole planet will experience the effects. Unfortunately,

concern and authoritiess take the stance that the Earth is more like a machine.

That is, at times if a portion is hurt it can be repaired, without it set uping the

whole system.

Literature Review

The literature on environmental groups and their influence and activities is

vast. Several subjects refering the groups & # 8217 ; influence in altering United

States policy exist. The American Psychological Association has done surveies on

ecocentric and anthropocentric attitudes ( Thomas, 1994 ) . Ecocentric values have

arisen late as environmental jobs have come to the public & # 8217 ; s attending.

Anthropocentric values have existed much longer. They have become

institutionalized into our political and economic system.

The motion toward environmental consciousness arose in the political activism in

the 60 & # 8217 ; s. Although these values have late been worsening harmonizing to

Finger ( 1993 ) . These biocentric and anthropocentric positions are besides examined by

Oscar wildes ( 1995 ) . Wildes besides explains the beginning of the motion in the 60 & # 8217 ; s,

and the figure of similar theories developed during the same epoch. In his survey

he applies neo-marxism to the relationship towards Man and Nature. By making

this he shows how the authorities and industry uses the environment for its ain

usage, frequently pretermiting the resulting effects.

Dodson ( 1995 ) examines if either of these opposing point of views offer plausible

replies to current jobs. Dodson besides explains how the groups interact.

Through this interaction they form political policy. Hampicke ( 1994 ) address the

exposure of the species and ecosystems to permanent devastation. Besides

shown is how conserva-tion costs are non inordinate as some in our authorities

believe. Lichterman ( 1995 ) shows that green groups non merely have jobs

associating towards our authorities, but besides multicultural obstructions. These

groups must convey together several involvements in order to organize a incorporate scheme

to show to the United States authorities.

Environmental lobbyists have so far been unsuccessful in their attempts to amend

bing environmental Torahs. Chemical manufactur-ing and other industry & # 8217 ; s

anterooms have been able to barricade their attempts. They have used promising of

run support to act upon Congress to back up industries ( Dowie, 1995 ) .

Senator Ted Stevens opposed the edifice of a grapevine across Alaska & # 8217 ; s coastal

field in 1977. He pointed out the tragic environmental costs of oil

development in his place province. Now he is a portion of a group of senators who are

taking attempts to turn over back environmental Torahs ( Foley, 1995 ) .

Congress has been modifying the state & # 8217 ; s environmental policy to suit concern

involvements during its first eight months in power. Senator Bob Dole sponsored a

hazard appraisal measure. This measure required that new federal human wellness and

safety criterions be weighed against their economic costs. This measure was

defeated by the Natural Resources Defense Council anteroom. Congress has besides

attached over 50 riders to assorted appropriations measures to all anti-

environment undertakings while minimising public cognition of the measures ( Adams,

1995, 3 ) . One of these riders was to a federal budget film editing measure. This

rider allowed private companies to salve damaged trees in national lands.

Other similar riders include doing it legal to see the sale of public

assets toward the decrease of the budget shortage. Another measure passed banned

the add-on of more species to the Endangered Species list and allows increased

logging at Tongass National Forest ( Adams, 1995, 2 ) .

Environmental policy is positively affected by force per unit area from clients,

stockholders, authorities ordinances, vicinity groups and community groups.

Although environmental policy is negatively affected by anteroom force per unit area from

other groups. This is from empirical informations from houses that have an functionary

policy for covering with environmental inquiries ( Henriques, 1996 ) .

Tension between societal equity and environmental political relations has existed in the

United States over the past 30 old ages. This tenseness has existed on a societal

categories footing, a gender footing, a racial footing, and an economic footing. Several

of these tensenesss nevertheless are more sensed than existent. There is a possible

common evidences for these two ends ( Paehlke, 1993 ) .

Research Concepts and Hypotheses

1. Research Concepts and Variables

Change In United States policy is dependent upon the action of involvement groups.

These groups are merely able to change policy if there actions are effectual at

advancing their cause. This can be done through the

support of the people, or

the electors. It can besides be done by straight buttonholing Congress for the transition

of a jurisprudence, or buttonholing to forestall a transition of jurisprudence. It is besides possible to

straight gain public and political attending through protests and other actions

that draw people & # 8217 ; s attending. The vote records of congresswomans and their

current position will be examined. Environmental lobbying attempts will besides be

examined in order to carry on this research.

2. Research Propositions and Hypothesiss

The United States authorities is anthropocentric in its attitude towards the

environment. Although there was a rush of environmental consciousness in the 60 & # 8217 ; s

this has declined in the recent decennary. Green groups have been seeking to switch

this point of view towards a biocentric position. They are faced non merely with the

job with associating to authorities, but besides to different civilizations. With

effectual schemes they will be successful at act uponing political determination

doing. The effectivity of their methods must be analyzed in order to guarantee

that what they are making is worthwhile.


In order to research the effectivity of environmental groups at changing

policy of the United States authorities, a close-ended questionnaire will be

created. This questionnaire will be sent to congresswomans. The questionnaire

will try to find the congresswomans & # 8217 ; s standing on different issues.

These issues will be theoretical policy picks. The policy picks will

either have a biocentric standing or a anthropocentric standing. A Likert graduated table

will be used to find how the congresswoman stands on an issue. A sample of

the study is included at the terminal of this proposal.

It will besides be of import to find whether the congresswoman is a Democrat or

Republican. The province that the congresswoman is from will besides be of import to

determine. These two indexs are of import because of possible alternate

influences on the congresswoman. Cogency of the replies can be determined by

comparing replies with recent voting wonts of single respondents.

The lobbying attempts of green groups will besides be studied by analyzing their

political activities, which include lobbying and other signifiers of political

force per unit area. If there is a alteration in the congresswomans & # 8217 ; s environmental places

over a period of clip this will necessitate to be examined closely. The political

force per unit area from environmental groups at the clip of alteration will besides necessitate to be


If there has been consistent alteration in congresswomans & # 8217 ; s positions and force per unit area from

environmental groups at that clip, so this will be considered as a positive

influence by the green groups. If there is a alteration in policy and no force per unit area

from green groups is noticeable so the grounds should be deduced. The

concluding behind this alteration could be used to assist the environmental groups.

If there has been no alteration in policy or policy has changed against the

environment, so the methods used by green groups will non be seen as

effectual. The importance of finding this is to give the groups an

chance to alter there methods in order to be more effectual.

Work Agenda

It will take about one hebdomad to fix the study and mailing list. After this

the consequences should be back within four to six hebdomads. While waiting for the

consequences, the vote record of congresswomans will be examined. Besides during this

period, recent lobbying attempts by environmental groups will be recorded. It

will so take about two more hebdomads to compare the informations.


Adams, John H. 1995. Interrupting Faith. Amicus Journal. 17, 3: 2.

Adams, John H. 1995. Particular Report: Congress and the Environment.

Amicus Journal. 17, 3: 3.

Dodson, A. 1995. The Politics of Nature: Explorations in Green

Political Theory. New York, NY: Routledge.

Dowie, Mark. 1995. Greenss Outgunned. Earth Island Journal. 10, 2: 26.

Finger, Matthias. 1992. The Changing Green Movement & # 8211 ; A Clarification. Research

in Social Movements, Conflicts and Change. 2: 229-246.

Foley, Dana Nadel. 1995. A Congressional Sampling station: Rollbacks, Rhetoric, and

Bills in the World of Washington & # 8217 ; s Anti-Greens. Amicus Journal. 17, 3: 13.

Hampicke, U. 1994. Ethical motives and Economicss of Conservation. Biology Conservation

Journal. 67, 3: 219-231.

Henriques, Irene and Perry Sadorsky. 1996. The Determinants of an

Environmentally Responsive Firm: An Empirical Approach. Journal of Environmental

Economicss and Management. 30, 3: 381.

Lichterman, Paul. 1995. Patching Together Multicultural Community: Cultural

Differences in Community Building among Grass-Roots Environmentalists. Social

Problems Journal 42, 4: 513-534.

Paehlke, Robert. 1993. Environment/Equity: Tensions in North American Politicss.

Policy Studies Journal. 21, 4: 672.

Thomas, Dietz. 1994. The Value Basis of Environmental Concern. Journal of Social

Issues. 50, 3: 65-84.

Oscar wildes, F. T. 1995. Recent Themes in Conservation Philosophy and Policy in the

United States. Environmental Conservation Journal. 22, 2: 143-150.


1 ) What is your political association?

2 ) Which province do you stand for?

Please answer the undermentioned inquiries in footings of ( 1 ) for strongly agree to ( 10 )

for strongly disagree.

3 ) Should familial technology be allowed to increase the production of a farm

even if there is a little hazard to the environment?

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

4 ) Should a atomic power works be allowed to be built to run into the local energy

demands of an country?

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

5 ) Should at that place be compulsory recycling Torahs even though non all countries have an

bing recycling system?

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

6 ) Should occupants be allowed to put thermostat readings to desired degrees even

though it may utilize more energy?

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

7 ) Should husbandmans be allowed to protect their farm animal by runing autochthonal

wild animate beings?

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

8 ) Should public Parkss be unfastened to increased excavation or logging to spur the

economic system of an country?

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

9 ) Should federal Torahs criminalizing the ownership of plumes or other parts of

birds of quarry be purely enforced?

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

10 ) Should industry be forced to cut down air and H2O pollution arising from

its mills even if it means loss of employees and decreased occupation chances?

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

11 ) Should the usage of private cars be restricted in order to cut down air


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

12 ) Should the authorities addition revenue enhancements on merchandises that harm the environment?

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10