Disease trends and the delivery of health care services Paul D. Wheeler HCA/240 April 27, 2013 Loretta Owen The wave of baby boomers will reshape the health care system forever. There will be more people enjoying their later years, but they’ll be managing ore chronic conditions and therefore utilizing more health care services (“Chd/center For Design Health”, 2013). There will be more people enjoying their later years, but they will also be managing more chronic conditions and therefore utilizing more health care services.
By 2030 the over 65 population will nearly triple, 6 out of 10 will be managing more than one chronic condition and one out of three, over 21 million, will be considered obese, with one out of four, nearly 14 million, living with diabetes, 1 out of every 2 will be living with arthritis, and eight times more knee replacements than performed today. At the turn of the century US life expectancy was 47 years of age. In 2002 (the last year for which data are available) it was 77 years.
Why has that life expectancy nearly doubled? People are living longer because of lifestyle changes, advances in health care, fewer people smoke, heart and cancer survival rate has increased by 16%. Chronic conditions like Diabetes, hypertension, arthritis, obesity, alcoholism are the biggest factors influencing medical spending. In 2000 people over the age of 65 suffering from chronic conditions was 5. 500,00 in is estimated that in 2030 this number will increase to 36. 000,000.
Those over 65 years old are more education and have financial assets to help them in their retirement years; however, they still worry about their ability to pay for health care during their retirement. Retirees change US demographic geography with their retirement choices. Most retirees prefer to move to Florida (14%) Arizona (12%) North Carolina (10%) California (8%) Texas (5%). Due to joint replacement and pain medication those over 65 lead more active lives than their parents, and these innovations have translated into a decreasing percentage of Americans who are considered chronically disabled.
Although diabetes has increased in the elderly, improvement in monitoring tools and treatments available to control glucose levels has also increased survival rate from this illness. By 2030, the number of U. S. adults aged 65 or older will more than double to about 71 million. The rapidly increasing number of older Americans has far-reaching implications for our nation’s public health system and will place unprecedented demands on the provision of health care and aging-related services (“Cdc – Chronic Disease – Healthy Aging at a Glance”, 2013).
With people living longer it is likely to use more health care resources per person than in past generations because they are able to manage more complex conditions. On average the cost of health care for an individual with more than five chronic conditions is nearly 15 times that of an individual with no chronic conditions. It is estimated that a person with no chronic condition is likely to spend about $850 per year on health issues, yet a person with 5 plus chronic conditions is likely to spend in excess of $13,000 per year. In 2010 the number of hospital admission was quoted at 8. million, it is estimated that in 2030 that number will increase to 22. 9 million. In 2004 hospital admissions under the age of 65 was estimated at 62%, over the age of 65 was 38%, however, in 2030 it is estimated that people under the age of 65 will be 44% but over the age of 65 will be 56%. Due to this increase we are experiencing a shortage of qualified nurses and physicians. Healthcare delivery in the future will be different. Patients want more control, and with technologies emerging it will make it easier to deliver care remotely and to more actively engage patients.
Hospitals are leveraging these technologies and broadening programs in ways that will dramatically change the face of health care for generations to come. Despite these advances, this wave of aging Baby Boomers will reshape the health care system forever. Hospitals play an important role in preparing for that challenge and are taking steps today to prepare for tomorrow. But hospitals cannot do it alone. Not only will it take cooperation from all parts of the health care sector, it also will require society’s intervention to promote wellness and improve the health of Americans.
This larger effort is needed if we are to meet the growing health needs of our citizens. Doctors agree that the more overweight a person is, the more likely he or she is to have health problems. People who are overweight or obese are at increased risk for chronic disease compared to normal-weight individuals. (“Obesity, Cholesterol and Heart Disease”, 2013). Obesity is a very serious condition and affects all Americans. The percentage of obesity in each race is Black Americans 76. 7% Hispanics 78. 8% Whites 66. %, Asian Americans 11. 6%, American Indians and Alaskan Natives 39. 9% and Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders 43. 5%. In total obesity in the United States in 1962 was at 32%, however, this rose to 75% in 2010. Children under the age of 19 was at 31. 8% with boys being at 33% and girls at 30. 4%. It is important that we teach our children a different lifestyle in eating. We need to take time to prepare and cook healthy food instead of just getting in the car and driving to the nearest fast food restaurant.
The average child goes to MacDonald’s has a Big Mac, Fries and Milk Shake; this is a total of 1,330 calories. This number of calories is far too many for one meal; we need to teach our children to spread out their intakes of calories through the day and to reduce the number that they take. We need to encourage our children to reach for a bottle of water as opposed to a can of soda. They need to eat fruit instead of candy, to walk instead of watching the television or playing games on the television. Children are not as active today as they used to be before the television and technology games.
Television advertisements encourage children to ask for foods and drinks that look good on the advertisements. Parents need to be strong and not encourage them to have these foods and drinks that are harmful to their wellbeing. Drugs are addictive, but so are sugars but parents do not look at drinks and candy as being addictive and dangerous to our child’s wellbeing. Adults are under the same brain washing by television advertisements as children are; only we do not seem to go for candy and soda but alcohol, rich red meat and large proportion meals.
Parents need to encourage to children to go with them for outings to the park, hiking, swimming or any other activity that promotes physical activity. Not only does this type of eating create obesity it also creates diabetes. Both obesity and diabetes are life threatening conditions that need to be taken seriously. The general health system is going to go through a large up-swing in costs due to several issues. We have obesity, cancer, heart related illnesses and many other life threatening illnesses. Besides these illnesses we have other big factors that are going to increase medical costs.
Drug abuse, not only illegal drugs but abuse of prescription drugs, alcohol, allergies and asthma also as well as stress related illnesses and smoking which seems to be on the decline, but the damage to those who smoked in the past will add to the medical costs. Cancer, diabetes, heart related problems, obesity are the largest contributor to the increase in medical costs. Although we have come a long way in curing cancer, it is still a very expensive and long process to the cure. Diabetes, once it reaches the high level is a lifetime of insulin shots and medical visits.
Obesity can cause many illnesses including diabetes, heart failure, kidney failure, hypertension, depression, joint swelling and pain. Although cancer and heart failure are serious illnesses, many people do not put obesity in the same serious category. Obesity is a very serious illness and should be treated in the same serious manner. Obesity can and will lead to your death if not treated. A doctor can prescribe chemotherapy and radiation for killing the disease, but there is no treatment like this for obesity.
Obesity is an illness that needs the patient to be in control of the illness themselves. This is a very difficult thing to do when you have for years not thought about what you put in your mouth to eat. Obesity itself needs the patient to be strict with themselves on what they eat and the amount they eat. To make themselves get up and go and exercise when they feel tired or down, and lastly they have to be honest with themselves as to the reason they are obese. If they are not prepared to do these things then all the medical help that they can be given will not work.
It is the only illness that really needs more patient involvement than medical intervention. The food industry is working towards giving us more information on the ingredients and calorie intake in each meal we eat, but we must be the ones to balance and add the calorie intake. One side effect of Obesity is depression and due to this it makes it harder for the person to keep themselves motivated to work at weight reduction. Diabetes is also another illness that is on the increase, of course, this is can be hereditary or also obesity is the main factor in getting diabetes.
If you have pre-diabetes you can reverse this with watching what you are eating and exercising. If you cannot reduce the diabetes you will have to take either medication every day or have shots. It does mean that you have to take your blood sugar levels several times a day. Health care is working hard to finding cures for the many illnesses that we suffer today. Medical carriers are also offering alternative medical care, such as massage therapy, physical therapy, acupuncture, counseling and support groups. By patients taking advantage of this type of treatment it helps keep medical costs down.
Pharmaceutical companies and research centers are working at finding cures for diseases, and hospitals are working at increasing their staff. It is important that doctors stop recommending patients have unnecessary tests and surgeries as these increase medical costs. Obesity is growing faster than any previous public health issue our nation has faced. If current trends continue, 103 million American adults will be considered obese by 2018. The U. S. is expected to spend about $344 billion on health care costs which is mainly due to obesity in 2018 if rates continue to increase at their current levels.
Obesity related direct expenditures are expected to account for more than 21 percent of the nation’s direct health care spending in 2018. If obesity levels were held at their current rates, the U. S could save an estimated $820 per adult in health care costs by 2018 a savings of almost $20 billion dollars (United Health Foundation, the American Public Health Association and Partnership for Prevention , 2009). Obesity is the fastest growing health challenge the nation has ever faced. References chd/center for design health. (2013).
Retrieved from http://www. healthdesign. org/ CDC – Chronic disease – Healthy aging at a glance. (2013). Retrieved from http://www. cdc. gov/chronicdisease/resources/publications/AAG/aging. htm Obesity, cholesterol and Heart disease. (2013). Retrieved from http://www. webmd. com/cholesterol-management/obesity-health-risks United Health Foundation, the American Public Health Association and Partnership for Prevention. (2009). the future costs of Obesity. Retrieved from http://www. nccor. org/downloads/CostofObesityReport-FINAL. pdf