A huge sum of information refering the Sumerian Empire of the Mesopotamian Valley was provided by Croft ( 1979 ) , Hooker ( 1998 ) , and Crystal ( 2004 ) . The Sumerian societal categories, the belongings function of adult females, their statement, faith, and member parts to civilisation as a whole are all adequately identified by each beginning. High-priests, Lords, authorities functionaries, and craftsmans completed the upper category of the Sumerian societal category system. ( Hooker, 1998 ) . Women, slaves, and banished Rebels completed the lower category. Merchants, shopkeepers, and city state soldiers made up the Sumerian in-between category. ( Croft, 1979 ) .
The complex cuneiform authorship system, the Sumerian Creation Story, and Sumerian districts tenancy was all explained by Webster ( 1957 ) . He besides implied that the Sumerians foremost used the cuneiform composing system as a agency of record maintaining. ( Webster, 1957 ) . This writer besides referenced other Sumerian narratives such as The Great Flood Story, Enki and the Mother Goddess of the Organizations of the Earth.
There was neither land, Gods, nor work forces ; there were merely two elements called Apsu and Tiamat, Harmonizing to the Ancient Babylonian Empire ‘s citizens. ( Delph, 1998 ) . Tiamat was a female salt H2O God, where as, Apsu was a male fresh H2O God. Sumerians worshipped firedrakes and normally referred to them as Gods. As told by the Sumerians, two Gods fought over the powers of jurisprudence. Stated by Adam ( 1997 ) , “ Zu stole the Torahs of the existence from the Sumerians most of import God Enlil ” ( p. 1 ) . This history of jurisprudence appeared as the first in history. The air God, Enlil, separated An, the sky God, and Ki, the Earth God, which were his male parent and female parent. As stated by Kramer ( 1972 ) , it was suggested that the sea God, Nammu, was the female parent who gave birth to heaven and earth. God created heaven and Earth. ( King James ) .
Between the Trigirs and Euphrates Rivers, lies the Ancient Mesopotamia River Valley ( Webster, 1997 ) . The Sumerians came together to organize big groups around 3,000 B.C. This began the formation of big Sumerian City-States. The Mesopotamia country that the Sumerians lived in is now referred to as Southern Iraq ( Webster, 1997 ) .
Round or rectangular shaped walls, made of thick clay, surrounded Sumerian City-States. A big pyramid-shaped, holy temple that reached high into the sky, and was besides the largest edifice in the metropolis, was the swayer of the City-State. The high priest could non be married and was the lone resident to really populate in the zikkurat. Expert ready to hand craftsmans in the countries of weaving, metal work, and woodworking were known as Artisans. Although gifted craftsmans were plentiful, there were really few Scribes. As it was considered a holy-trade, the best pupils were manus selected by high priests to go Scribes. ( Croft, 2007 ) . Sumerians, Babylonians, Egyptians, and other outstanding civilisations used the Mesopotamian River Valley as a fruitful trade path. Artifacts from these ancient civilisations have been discovered by archaeologists even today. ( Croft, 2007 ) .
Government and Social Structure
The primary Sumerian Empire was surrounded by many much smaller Sumerian city states. In hopes of deriving control and obtaining the land and H2O that was needed for endurance, smaller city states would contend other smaller metropoliss. ( Croft, 2007 ) . Care of the metropolis walls and irrigation systems was the duty of the high priest of the metropolis. To roll up revenue enhancements and maintain record maintaining for the spread outing metropolis, the swayer would name on viziers. ( Croft, 2007 ) . Sumerian citizens viewed the high priest as the head retainer. Keeping spiritual ceremonials designed to delight the Gods was the primary responsibility of the main retainers.
There was a distinguishable societal hierarchy in each Sumerian city state. Artisans, governing households, the high priest of the city state, and taking functionaries composed the highest category. ( Croft, 2007 ) . Depending on their trade, Artisans were honorary members of the upper-class. They were besides considered to be holy retainers to the high priest. ( Hooker, 1998 ) . Merchants and retainers of the priest comprised the in-between category. Merely a few Scribes who could read and compose, were considered royalty. The bulk of the city state ‘s people made up the hierarchal ladder. Rather than being allowed to populate indoors within the walls of any Sumerian city state, hapless husbandmans and slaves lived out side the walls in clay baked, clay reed huts. ( Croft, 2007 ) .
Role of Sumerian Women
Harmonizing to Sumerian myths, the cardinal figure of creative activity was a mother-goddess. ( Croft, 2007 ) . Stated by Croft ( 2007 ) ; “ pay attentiveness to the plants of female parents as though it were the work of God ” ( p.4 ) . The function of mother-goddess disappeared as it was replaced by warrior leaders or male Gods as city states grew. ( Croft, 2007 ) . Palace workshops, retainers, and regulation, when the male monarch was non present, were all supervised by the upper-class males. Womans were seen as belongings and did non hold any authorization or rights in both upper and lower Sumerian societal categories. Women continuously depended on their hubbies for support in the common household. Even though they had taken attention of all day-to-day undertakings at place, common and upper category adult females were owned by their hubbies. If a adult female ‘s hubby died she so became Sumerian city-state belongings or was sold by the high priest. ( Guisepi & A ; Willis, 2003 ) .
The Sumerian people worshipped many Gods, doing them polytheistic. Gods behaved merely as regular people would hold by feeding, imbibing, marrying, and raising households, harmonizing to Sumerian beliefs. The Gods were held responsible for force and agony, but the favorite truth and justness. Each city state had its ain God or goddess and the Sumerian citizens felt it was their responsibility to maintain them appeased. If the Gods were appeased, in Sumerian belief, would be mo hurting or agony. Holy yearss, with ceremonials praising Gods and goddesses, were held by the Sumerians. Inanna, the vitalizing goddess of love, was worshipped by the high priest on New Years. If this goddess was praised, harmonizing to the Sumerians, the New Year would be fruitful and the city state would thrive. ( Croft, 2007 ) .
Contributions to Civilization
Cuneiform authorship was developed by the Sumerians around 2500 B.C.E. This composing consisted of cuneus shaped Markss that were inscribed into wet clay tablets utilizing a reed stylus. ( Webster, 2005 ) . These Hagiographas were images etched into wet clay, known as pictograph. There was a narrative to be told from each image of symbol. After the Scribe was finished etching, the clay was baked to continue the tablets. The Sumerian alphabet consisted of 550 characters. The etching could take yearss to finish. The Sumerians besides developed their ain figure system. ( Croft, 2007 ) .
The combination of a mundane 10 and 9 heavenly 6 created the base figure 60. This was the Sumerian numerical called sexagesimal. ( Sitchin, 2001 ) . The base figure for 60 proceedingss and 360 grades in a circle was the figure 60. The usage of figure 60 led to the first signifiers of algebra and geometry. Helping path harvest growing, the merchandising, purchasing, and tracking of goods, matrimonies, and deceases, every twenty-four hours life became really of import to Sumerian life style. ( Croft, 2007 ) .
The Sumerians have a three-tiered societal category system, as antecedently stated. Nobles, priests, warriors, and authorities functionaries came together to compose the highest or upper category. The in-between category or freeman category was composed with merchandisers, craftsmans, and bargainers. Slaves and manual workers formed the 3rd and lowest category. ( Croft, 2007 ) . The Sumerian societal category system portions many similarities with the United States ( U.S. ) societal category system. Business professionals, presidents, governors, and senators make up the U.S. wealthy. Following, there is the working category that is considered to be the in-between category. Peoples in the U.S. that receive populating aid, and/or public assistance, do up the U.S. lower category. A household having aid is required, by the public assistance section, a signifier of portion clip employment to maintain their benefits. ( Bureau for Children and Families, 2008 ) .
Working the lands of the Gods was a undertaking maintained by the priests. If person was excessively hapless to pay their revenue enhancements, they would be turned to slavery. Power could non be held by Sumerian common mans and they were frequently illiterate. Working on community undertakings and paying metropolis revenue enhancements, in signifiers of harvests or Ag, was frequently done by common people that had been enslaved by the Government. The harvests would be used as a nutrient supply for their local ground forces or sold to other city states. ( Croft, 2007 ) .
Merely upper-class citizens could be educated. high priests would acquire paid to educate kids and their households. Young males made up the bulk of pupils. From Sun up to sun down, pupils were expected to be given their surveies. If errors were found in a pupils work, they were greatly punished with ciliums from a stick or cane. However, pupils were praised for their achievements. ( Guisepi & A ; Willis, 2003 ) .
War and Slavery
A member of the lowest feudal category, that is attached to the land owned by a Godhead and is required to execute labour for certain legal rights, is known as a helot. ( Webster Dictionary, 2008 ) . The largest portion of the Sumerian societal category was comprised by helot and slaves. Chiefly used as public work or courtesans, slaves were frequently traded when husbandmans could non afford to pay their revenue enhancements. ( Guisepi & A ; Willis, 2003 ) .
The first and oldest set of Torahs or spiritual codifications known were created by the Sumerians. Surrounding metropoliss and states adopted the Hammurabi Code. The jurisprudence of Gods by the Sumerians has been proven by, archaeological grounds, to be the first record. The Akkadians had the jurisprudence of adult male, which was the 2nd history, and the Babylonians had the jurisprudence of God and adult male, which was the 3rd history. ( Goetze, 1949 ) . An attack that held persons responsible for their actions, normally known as requital, was in The Code of Hammurabi. Lex talionis translates from Latin to English as oculus for an oculus. ( Hooker, 1996 ) . An exhibit for this construct is stealing. Mutilation, forfeiture of belongings, and decease are all included in the Sumerian sentence for stealing. The Gods would take and necessitate the sentence that must be delivered by the high priest. ( Parker, 2005 ) .
United States Cities
Huge farm land surrounds most metropoliss in the United States. This makes it ideal for turning harvests or raising animate beings to be processed. However, some United States metropoliss are formed into tight knit communities, due to the stray countries and mountains they are surrounded by. To maintain the un wealthy and rebellious out, the Sumerians reinforced great walls around their city states. The town became protected from sand storms by the Zagros Mountains.
Government, Social Structure, and CJ System of the U.S.
All United States citizens have equal rights unless they have been convicted of a offense or expecting trail. Well good standing legal United States citizens are guiltless until proved guilty in the tribunal of jurisprudence. However, they are by and large kept in keeping cells until they are proven to be either guilty or guiltless. The United States military forces are ran by a president or commander-in-chief that has been United States elected. Governors, congresswomans, legislative assemblies, Senators, and local metropolis functionaries are all under the United States President and Vice President. The people of the United States can elect or name these leaders.
There are 4 different types of tribunals in the United States including federal and supreme tribunals. Laws that govern the people are created and voted on by the United States. All United States citizens have the right to a just trail if they have broken a jurisprudence. An lawyer will be appointed by a court-of-law to any person who can non afford one. ( Neubauer, 2005 ) .
As done by the Sumerians, the United States set sentences for offenses and than have an appointed individual go through with the sentences. A justice hands down a sentence in the United States and appoints a province to transport it out. On the other manus, the high priest would transport out the decease sentence. Milligan, 2006 ) . When an person harms person with authorization, such as a constabulary officer, a higher penalty is sought out by civil and condemnable tribunals. However, Sumerians used the oculus for an oculus doctrine more freely by penalizing any citizen with decease for the violent death and harming of any individual.
Womans and Education in the United States
Sumerian adult females had no power and were still considered to be slaves even if they were portion of the upper category. ( Guisepi & A ; Willis, 2003 ) . In the past, United States adult females did non hold any rights. Now, adult females in the United States have equal rights, such as vote, keeping places in authorization, and having belongings. United States adult females even have the right to run in presidential elections ; where as Sumerians has authorization figures known as goddesses. Since 3500 B.C.E. , Torahs and societal categories have evolved a huge sum.
Sumerian instruction was merely available to affluent households. In the United States, instruction is unfastened for everyone. When an single attempts to acquire a high paying occupation in the United States, instruction becomes a really of import factor. The odds of an single receiving a higher educational position is increased by this. ( U.S. Department of Education, 2008 ) .
War and Slavery in the United States
War and bondage were common prior to the development of the U.S. districts. ( Wiecek, 1978 ) . Territories separated and became autonomous during the clip of the civil war. Stated that all work forces and adult females were equal was established during Lincoln ‘s term of presidential term, stoping bondage. Wars were fought on each fatherland by the United States and Sumerians. A war on terrorist act is fought every twenty-four hours by the United States, merely as the people of the state were protected by the Sumerians. ( Wiecek, 1978 ) .
The oldest known codification of Torahs, therefore far, have been the Sumerian Torahs. Throughout clip, Torahs, rights, and modern-day authorities have all changed vastly and they will go on to. As clip goes by, the United States will continually amend Torahs by manner of new research. An probe on The Code of Hammurabi should be conducted with more research. The base of all Torahs and authoritiess have been set by King Hammurabi. A acknowledgment of this and an apprehension of this by pupils in the schoolroom is really of import. To take down the opportunities of reiterating history, people must cognize and understand more about our history.